THE MOVE TO BIOMETRIC IDENTIFICATION, WITH REFERENCE TO CHINA’S SYSTEMS, OTHER FORMS OF NATIONAL IDENTITY DOCUMENTATION AND THE RIGHT TO PRIVACY

"iPhone face recognition works with statues" by futureshape is licensed under CC BY 2.0

Introduction

Biometrics is the body measurement and calculation that is related to human characteristics. Biometric authentication occurs with computer science for identification and access control. It helps to identify individuals under surveillance. Different types of biometric identifications are there including face recognition, thumb impression and retina scanning. In the moving world, with other countries, China is also moving to adopt biometric identification as the national identification system. The present study focuses on the biometric system. The key area of the study is finding out how China is adopting the system for the development of the government system and how helpful it is.

Biometric identification in China

China is a tech-savvy country and it is moving fast forward to make it a digital country. They are planning to adopt different types of biometric identification. Biometric identification is generally of two types that are physiological identification and behavioral identification. Physiological identification is related to the shape of the body, for example, fingerprint, and face recognition, retina scanning, palm print and DNA recognition (Shamsuddin 2019). On the other hand, behavioral characteristics include voice, rhythm and gait.

Figure 1: Retina scanning

(Source: Barra et al. 2018)

China is introducing the system as the personal identification number so that privacy concerns and information use can be limited. However, it is an application-dependent system that needs a convenience level and security. It is difficult for a single biometric to mate all the requirements of possible applications. In the case of biometric identification, an individual needs to enroll initially in which the metric information will be captured and stored for that individual. With subsequent uses, the system will detect and compare the captured information with the stored information to ensure that the information is secured with the system (Páez et al. 2020). The multimodal biometric system generally uses multiple sensors to overcome limitations of unimodal biometric systems and it has all of the characteristics of retina scanning face recognition and thumb impression.

Biometric identification and national identity documentation

Biometric mortality becomes a common component for identification in present days which awards everything around the world; for example, corporate business, government solution, banking and education. In the present day, people rely on biometric systems more in comparison to the traditional security method and the government is also where to adopt the technology to the National program. As mentioned by Iftimie et al. (2020), biometric identification is a great opportunity for the country to imply it not only in IT sectors for attendance purposes but also use it as a national identity document. New technologies allow identity cards to contain biometric information, for example, fingerprint, retina scanning, palm print and face recognition to issue the electronic identity card.

Figure 2: Thumb impression

(Source: Creemers 2018)

In view of Songqing and Shengyu (2017), biometric identification can help to access control including passport driver licenses and it also can be used as an identification proof. In China, biometric identification can be used as a national identification system which will be accepted as identity verification in case of government work. The People’s Republic of China needs each and every citizen aged 16 and above to carry an identity card which is accepted as the only legal document to an obtained residence, permit passport, employment, for driving license as well as to open bank accounts apply for territory education and Technical colleges.

The government system of China for biometric identification

As many countries have already adopted the biometric solution in their National program in the present-day, China is also taking it seriously. Biometric identification reduces the expenses of many big government projects in Healthcare pension distribution and social welfare programs as it comes in handy to run the program smoothly by involving few people in the program. China is planning to adopt the solution for the pension distribution program. The pension distribution system should be technically error-free and this biometric system should be adopted as soon as possible (M2SYS Blog On Biometric Technology 2020). However, for many countries, it is not a new approach as the system brings a better enrollment rate and reduces the error rate.

Fuzzy and self-serving face recognition uses in China

Figure X: Face recognition technology

(Source: Biometric Update. 2020)

The main conviction about biometric facial identification in China is that everybody’s face is being perceived. As a cutting edge technocratic fascism, China’s administration utilizes facial identification as a major aspect of a framework to keep up smothering authority over everybody and everything inside the country’s outskirts. So it is amazing that one of the regions that its tyrant chiefs appear to be to some degree loose is the utilization of face recognition technology in the semi-private areas. Here are instances of the two points of view (Biometric Update 2020). In the old and enormous city of Xian, officials are preparing man-made brainpower stands at which couples can get their marriage endorsements after their face or government ID is filtered, as per the South China Morning Post. The Hong Kong-based paper revealed that at any rate one other city in China, Chengdu, has made a comparable framework, enlisting 2,500 couples in 2019 (Iftimie et al. 2020). In a similar article, the Morning Post announced that face-checking terminals are now utilized by Hainan territory residents to finish a few exchanges with the administration. Much is made by authorities of these facial acknowledgment extends just like an approach to decrease Covid transmission, counter marriage misrepresentation and improve government proficiency. Fewer spotlights is put on the legislature getting untold quantities of sufficiently bright and distinguished face pictures for its home security records and AI calculations.

Furthermore, the cycle could barely be more proficient. Every one of those authorities needs to do is fabricate and power the frameworks; individuals appear all alone. At that point there is the situation (additionally revealed in the Morning Post) of a 20,000 individuals associated with gym centres in the city of Suqian that sent facial acknowledgment frameworks to look at individuals in and of the office. Its proprietor, notwithstanding, didn’t encode or secure its individuals’ biometric information, which additionally included fingerprints, names and telephone numbers. The business was given an admonition, a move that ought not astonish (Biometric Update 2020). An examination of China’s facial-acknowledgment rules by UK law office Taylor Wessing found that there is no “bound together legitimate structure for information insurance driven by a solid accentuation on close to home security as in Europe.” Instead, as indicated by Michael Tan, an accomplice in the firm and creator of the investigation, lawmaking including face filtering is “an extremely practical ‘gaining from doing’ approach.” In another country, that may be known as a free enterprise theory. While a few ventures, including banking, work under all around created laws explicit to them, there are draft public prerequisites that “by and large spread all facial acknowledgment” applications. The face recognition technique is also using in the Chinese super markets. It is a highly innovative approach by which the customers can do shopping and after that pay through the face scanning machines at the checkout counter. More details can be found in the following link: (https://youtu.be/_XZvr96I9Vs).

Conclusion

After analysing the above information regarding the biometric authentication, it has been found that the innovative technology is gaining much popularity in this modern technology dependent world. The use of biometric authentication has increased the validity of identity of a person. China, being a tech giant country has adopted this technology in many areas like shopping centres, government agencies, banks and many others. In this regard, mainly three types of bio-metric authentications are being used in this country; thumb impression, eye detection and face recognition. Applications of these technologies are increasing security in the applied areas and with proper authentications getting access to the secured areas are getting easier.

 

 

 

 

References

Barra, S., Castiglione, A., De Marsico, M., Nappi, M. and Choo, K.K.R., 2018. Cloud-based biometrics (biometrics as a service) for smart cities, nations, and beyond. IEEE Cloud Computing, 5(5), pp.92-100.

Biometric Update. 2020. China’S Face-Scanning Regulations Are Fuzzy And Self-Serving. [online] Available at: <https://www.biometricupdate.com/202005/chinas-face-scanning-regulations-are-fuzzy-and-self-serving> [Accessed 16 October 2020].

Creemers, R., 2018. China’s social credit system: an evolving practice of control. Available at SSRN 3175792.

Iftimie, I.A., Wilson, R.L., Iftimie, M.C. and Lukban, F., 2020. The Use of Facial Recognition in China’s Social Credit System: An Anticipatory Ethical Analysis. In Paradigm Shifts in ICT Ethics: Proceedings of the ETHICOMP* 2020 (pp. 134-136). Universidad de La Rioja.

M2SYS Blog On Biometric Technology. 2020. Biometric Pension Distribution In China. [online] Available at: <https://www.m2sys.com/blog/news/biometric-pension-distribution-china/> [Accessed 16 October 2020].

Páez, R., Pérez, M., Ramírez, G., Montes, J. and Bouvarel, L., 2020. An Architecture for Biometric Electronic Identification Document System Based on Blockchain. Future Internet12(1), p.10.

Shamsuddin, W.Y.L.S.M., 2019. Biometric Identification based Scores Discretization on Multi Forms of Image Structures. Int. J. Advance Soft Compu. Appl11(3).

Songqing, Z. and Shengyu, Y., 2017. The Inspiration of American Biometrics to China. Journal of Intelligence, (12), p.10.