Critical internet ecology analysis: Twitter


Internet has created many opportunities for companies to reach out to customers and also an avenue for customers to interact and sharing information with each other’s. These internet companies are innovative in ways in which they reach out to customers and make life easier for people. Twitter is one of those internet companies that are very innovative and it allows customers to share breaking news and also a business platform where firms can market their products.  This essay examines the history of Twitter and how it was developed and its evolutionary model and the most important part is its internet ecology and the transformative innovation technology from internet and how this firm has made life simple for customers.


What is Twitter?

Twitter is an American-based microblogging and a social-networking site where users can post and interact with others through tweets. The registered users have the ability to post, like and retweet someone’s tweet, but unregistered users can only view or read other’s tweets. The users can access Twitter through their websites interface and a short Message Service and a mobile application. The tweets are often in short characters no more than 140 characters long and it involves link to key websites and the resources. Twitter users can follow each and see others’ post and it is always used to discuss trending topics and people with similar interests. One can create their tweets and retweet the information from others. Twitter has become increasingly the most important site among the academics and students, politicians and policymakers. Most of the users of Twitter can struggle to know what Twitter is and how it operates, but at the moment it has become a social media platforms of choice for many. Twitter also promote personal research such as providing links to blog stories, journals and news items. It also reach a large number of people within a short time through tweets and retweets, following the work of others and particularly the experts in the field and building a strong relationships with followers and experts. Twitter also helps one keep updated with the latest news and developments as well as sharing information instantly and once you make a tweet it can reach both new and old audience. People also uses Twitter to seek information and feedback from organizations and contributing to a discussion on events and conferences and other sensitive topics of national interest.

History of Development of Twitter

The origin of Twitter can be traced to brainstorming session that was held by board of members of a podcasting firm known as Odeo. Jack Dorsey who was an undergraduate student at New York University initiated the idea of someone using the SMS services as a means of communication within a small group (Curran, O’Hara & O’Brien, 2011). The initial project code was given the name twttr and inspired by Flick and five characters of American SMS codes. Six months later, Twitter was born and the developers considered the short code “10958” and later changed to “40404”. The original Twitter prototype was developed by Dorsey and contractor Weber who employed an internal services from Odeo employees. It was until 2011 that started up and it was created to be a company on its own. But the first idea was not clear and the founders started to call it social network and later name it microblogging. The popularity of Twitter started in 2007 in South by Southwest interactive conference (Dijk, 2011). During this event, Twitter Usage increased from 20,000 tweets to 60,000 and the users cleverly added two 60-inch plasma screens in the conferences and it allowed the streaming of tweets.

Twitter’s Revolutionary Business Model

Business model refers to the business strategy and how it creates values to the customers and how it differentiate itself so that it can also make money or generate revenue (Nielsen & Lund, 2014). Twitter’s business model is the same as those of other social networks and it requires the users to create a profile and the users can post short messages or tweets with less than 280 characters. Lately, Twitter has moved its focus to content creation and videos and as video has a better engagement as compared to banner or text in an advertisement. To motivate the video creators, Twitter is sharing revenue with them and the creators can earn 70% and the remaining 30% is kept by Twitter. This is better than You Tube where the creator and the firm shares 50/50, Twitter with the assistance of Periscope has attempted to introduced live-streaming and it has purchased rights to huge events such as NFL games, political debates, award ceremonies to improve its business model. In respect to value proposition, Twitter provides different to its stakeholders in the following ways: First, user benefits, the users shares the content with the world and a real-time and correct content in return are allowed to participate in the conversation with the people through te messages and tweets. Secondly is the benefits through advertisement, tweets are viral global reach and have special formats and it can reach target audience within te shortest time possible.Thus, giving real-time information. Finally, Twitter creates data partner benefits as it allow acess, search and the analysis of data and creation of an insight to monetize information.  Twiter has overtime improve its business model through acquiring partnership rather than an internal users and revenue growth. Some of the common acquisitions and partnership includes Crashlytics, Gnip, Magic Pony Technology, MobPub Advertising Solutions, Periscope, TapCommerce and TellApart among others.  Twitter has also partnered with firms such as Google’s ad servng system to enhance its ad serving and revenue genetaion abilities and DoubleClick (Das, 2019).  Twitter makes money through advertising sales and promoting a tweet promoting an account and promoting a particular trend like hashtag-driven subject. The photos and videos previews are also shown in the posts alongside the text. Therefore, allowing advertisers to present their content to reach the target audience much better.


Twitter’s Internet Ecology

Internet ecology or ecosystem is defined by Looi (2001) as an organized system where

Twitter’s Transformative and disruptive innovation from Internet agents depends on information from the technology to make an impact. It also involves those firms and services that support the business and makes it successful in its service delivery to the customers. Just like any other business ecology, Twitter’s ecology involves lower and higher layers. The lower-level actors are those that provides services to better-level actors, but Twitter’s ecosystem is small and simple. The development was motivated by a phone messaging services and the creators became inventors of most simple social media system. There are some moving parts in Twitter and it can convince the marketers to keep many parts in mind and to that end it provides a twitter system and the most fundamental approach has two core components the behaviour and mechanics. These two areas work hand in hand such that it draws a line down the center and talk each other, and its system navigates through home, me @Connect and #discover. (Markscheffel, Eine & Broszinski, 2012) The complete social media community has four major activities and it is about listening, production and creation of content.

Twitter’s top competitors in the social network industry includes Facebook, Snap Inc, Google, WhatsApp, You Tube, Instagram and WeChat

The infographic below shows Twitter’s competitors

Facebook has been the leading Twitter’s competitor because it has created people build connection virtually. The Twitter was established to allow people to share information or ideas or random thoughts and this explains why Facebook has a bigger following compared to Twitter.

The Transformational Innovation of Twitter

Disruptive innovation means is operating at a cheaper rate and more effectively and efficiently as compared to its competitors (Clayton et al., 2018). Disruptive technology makes it easier for customers to share information and communicate effectively. Twitter’s disruptive technology is unique because it is up to the users to determine how the social network site can be used. Twitter’s risky and innovative strategy was to give opportunities for users to communicate in less than 300 characters. It is the leading social network site with over 330 million active users per month and over 40 languages.  Twitter’s disruptive innovation has been linked to the business strategy and the business bring ideas and create innovation everywhere. It also uses the concept of multiple applications and take enough time to define the problem (Kumaraswamy, Garud & Ansari, 2018).  Twitter has also disrupted the traditional method of consuming sport communication that Television used to offer and gives many possibilities of internet-enabled sport participatory. This disruption by Twitter is unique because the users dictates how they use the platform, in the recent past, Twitter has gained popularity among the key stakeholders in sport such as teams, athletes, fans and journalists. Twitter has become rooted in sport communication and most of the stakeholders find it easier to use twitter to communicate with others. It is also used in sport research agenda because it provides many information to the researcher and it can be used to reach many people (Pegoraro, 2014). Additionally, Twitter has become an excellent platform for social activism and most of the people creates a tweet and hashtag and it goes viral. Women and the minority groups have always used Twitter as a way of protesting and advocating for their rights and looking for justice and it is very effective. Women have used this to stop gender-based violence by creating a hashtag that says we should stop violence directed to women and such tweets often go viral and it reaches many people globally. The minority groups like African-American have also resorted to twitter to fight for justice and their rights like black lives matter was very famous hashtag that went viral and it had a huge impact.  This shows how Twitter is improving how customers use technology and using few words, but sending a strong message (Donoghue, 2016). Twitter’s focus on only few characters was creative way of ensuring that people only focus on key points and the message is already send. Once the tweet is viral through retweets the concern parties are forced to act accordingly.



In conclusion, social networks has disrupted the communication strategy through innovation and creativity. Twitter has disrupted how people share information and communicate ideas using few, but strong characters.  It is a unique business model with a risky, but effective strategy. The social network has revolutionize how people communicate and share information; through  a short-post with few characters, one can communicate a strong message and thus, Twitter has completely changed how people consume information and communicating with others.










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