Bullying, harassment, violent content, hate, porn and other problematic content circulates on digital platforms. Who should be responsible for stoping the spread of this content and how?

"Stop cyber-bullying!" by hrlori is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.


The 21st century could be known as the information age, since information is spreading faster & quicker than ever before. Although people could easily access most of the education/information by simply doing research on their mobile devices through the internet. At the same time, there are negative impacts occurring on our day-to-day life throughout digital platforms. The following paragraphs will be explaining critical understanding of the history, politics, economics, and cultures of the internet worked technologies from three different sectors, which are Government/ Nation, Media companies and Individual. Thus, the awareness of social & culture issues arising and spreading from networked change, and how Government, private sectors and individual should response to it.

Cyber-Bullying” by Travis S. is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.

United Nations

The United Nations can regulate the control of hate speech, violence, and pornography on digital media platforms. Because the UN is an international organization of sovereign governments, it has the authority and credibility to advance politics, engage in social movements and control hate of all kinds (UNITED NATIONS STRATEGY AND PLAN OF ACTION ON HATE SPEECH, n.d.). From cognitive mediums to media and information polarization, it is particularly important to build bridges between people of different religious and cultural backgrounds to improve information on terrorist acts on media platforms. For instance, in some countries there is a relatively high coverage of online misconduct information (Gillespie, 2021). In Australia, it is estimated that around 14% of adults were targeted by online hate speech in the year ending August 2019. In New Zealand, the proportion was around 15 % in the 12 months to June 2019 (eSafety Commissioner, n.d.). Governments could use their authority to understand the root causes of hate and bullying to address the triggers and actors. According to a new survey, there has been an overwhelmingly negative press coverage of Covid19 in the US media. Economics professor Bruce Sacerdote joined CBSN for a discussion, with much talk of the unsupportive nature of the new Covid Vaccine and the control of the epidemic (Gillespie, 2021). This clearly has a media effect on the governance of a country, with many people disapproving of the outbreak management policies and discriminating against citizens who comply with the outbreak control. Such negative news reaches 87% of the total coverage. Ethnic minorities, females and the most vulnerable people and children in our society are being held hostage by this digital violence (CBS News, 2021). In addition, a consensus should be reached on the drivers to identify some of the actors of hate speech. To introduce effective legal responses among effective public authorities and social media platforms, and to introduce independent public relations regulation in proportion to the harm caused by different information. Online Harassment and Cyber Bullying. Collage Of Upset African American Girl and Offensive Chat Messages

Online Harassment and Cyber Bullying. Collage Of Upset African American Girl and Offensive Chat Messages by Prostockstudio is licensed by CC BY-ND 2.0


Media company

For the media platforms to prevent the spread of undesirable speech and rumors and the means of dissemination. Cognitive media to information polarization, it is particularly important to build bridges between individuals of different religious and cultural backgrounds to improve the message of terrorist acts on media platforms. The communicative expression of online platforms is suitable for privacy and anonymous speech related, through the extension of Privacy 1.0 to Privacy 2.0, mainly involving the management systems of many government and private institutions (Lamberton, 1994). For example, platforms such as YouTube make it possible to share information not only about individuals but also about their peers. Frequently, such online phenomena encourage online opinion makers to use close relationships to undermine the value of freedom of expression in the media (Gorwa, 2019). Social media platforms have issued policies on the privacy and anonymity of their platforms and, in the case of anonymous communication, the possibility of obtaining identity information by tracking anonymous services, limiting the transmission of some online technologies (Flew et al., 2019). For example, Facebook, a media platform that provides users with information moderation and public sharing services, allows users to be identified by their registration information. Secondly, on the Twitter app users are allowed to register using their ‘hobby name’, which strongly protects the privacy of the user from restrictions (Flew et al., 2019). Furthermore, an increasing number of social media platforms such as TikTok, Xiaohong Book and Weibo blog have updated their IP addresses so that the approximate location of each user is publicly and widely available. Because of the hate speech that appears on some media platforms, there is no way to locate any of the posters, and the use of IP, GPS, Wi-Fi, or cellular positioning can locate some of the perpetrators of online violence much faster (Gorwa, 2019). However, the disadvantage is that this way of communication also makes some normal users feel anxious, and their position on the Internet becomes ” visible “.

This video mainly delivers the news and chances of some apps for teenagers to combat aggressive behavior. Confront online harassment in the face of what is being said online. In the computer program, a lot of cyber harassment received news information antagonistic factors make some citizens receive fake news and public opinion influence. In this way, it conveys a painful display of the Internet harassment of the public in the media age. The public should change their mind and delete problematic posts in the face of long-term dissemination of harmful information. In this way, words and labels are chosen to dilute some of the negative markers.

Inculcating digital citizenship at Vicenza, Italy, schools” by USAG Italy is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.



As big data technology gradually enters the lives of individuals, it enables them to collect, analyze and communicate information to obtain more resources they require. Cyberbullying is based on personal information and many young teenagers are vulnerable to mental health and behavioral health risks. According to statistics, more than half of secondary school students in China have been victims of cyberbullying in the past year, and about one in five of them are regularly exposed to violent online speech (Rice et al., 2015). As a result of this social phenomenon, it is up to individuals and citizens to stop the spread of hate speech, violence, and pornography on the internet, depending on their circumstances. First, before you post a new or suspicious message, check the source of the message. Look at the source to see if the information has been published before. Secondly, if you see a website, link or image that says, “copy to get this information”, do not click on it to copy the information. Most of this information is false or misleading and is not verified. This can easily compromise the privacy of your information. At same time, as a parent/ elderly could monitoring our children & younger generation with the correct way of using internet and social media. In Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization Among Middle-School Students 2015, stated social media over used is also strongly associated with cyberbullying. By collecting a probability of 1285 middle-school students in Los Angeles Unified School District middle schools, high levels of Internet use (i.e., at least 3 hours per day) who are more likely involved in cyberbullying (Rice et al., 2015). In general, it is important for individuals to be more aware of the security risks on any online platform. In the event of an emergency, learn to recognize and control the reproduction and dissemination of undesirable information.

Hate-Speech-Aktion_18-11-15_07” by campact is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.



In general, to reduce the problematic contact circulation on digital platforms, these three sectors (governments, private organizations, individuals) play an important role. In the event of an emergency, learn to recognize and control the reproduction and dissemination of undesirable information. Bullying such as violent content, hatred, pornography & harassment tends to impact people from different parts of their lives in different ways.





Australian Hate Crime Network (‘the Network’). (2021). Australian hate crime network – infrastructure.gov.au. Australian Government, Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Communications. Retrieved from https://www.infrastructure.gov.au/sites/default/files/submissions/osb-australian-hate-crime-network.pdf


CBS News. (2021). U.S. media overwhelmingly reports negative COVID-19 news; 87% of coverage is negative. CBS News. Retrieved from https://www.cbsnews.com/video/us-media-overwhelmingly-reports-negative-covid19-news/


Flew, T., Martin, F., & Suzor, N. (2019). Internet regulation AS media policy: Rethinking the question of Digital Communication Platform Governance. Journal of Digital Media & Policy, 10(1), 33–50. https://doi.org/10.1386/jdmp.10.1.33_1


Gillespie, T. (2021). In Custodians of the internet: Platforms, content moderation, and the hidden decisions that shape social media (pp. 1–23). essay, Yale University Press.


Gorwa, R. (2019). The platform governance triangle: Conceptualising the informal regulation of online content. Internet Policy Review, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.14763/2019.2.1407


Lamberton, D. M. L. (1994). Telecommunications management and policy. Telecommunications Policy, 18(1), 79. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-5961(94)90095-7


Online hate speech. eSafety Commissioner. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.esafety.gov.au/research/online-hate-speech


Rice, E., Petering, R., Rhoades, H., Winetrobe, H., Goldbach, J., Plant, A., Montoya, J., & Kordic, T. (2015). Cyberbullying perpetration and victimization among middle-school students. American Journal of Public Health, 105(3). https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2014.302393


TeachingTolerance. (2018, May 16). Teaching tolerance countering online hate speech. YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0w1ESBmoI4U


UN strategy and plan of action on hate speech – united nations. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/documents/UN%20Strategy%20and%20Plan%20of%20Action%20on%20Hate%20Speech%2018%20June%20SYNOPSIS.pdf